One miniaturization technique is to develop integrated circuit packages in Ball Grid Arrays (BGAs). BGA designs enable large
amounts of connections between the integrated circuit and printed circuit board - increasing the ability to route signals and
therefore increasing the processing power of the system it is being assembled into.
BGAs also improve chip reliability and reduce overheating, as they allow for higher numbers of thermal channels and shorter
signal travellengths. Establishing more and better electrical connections make BGAs a key enabler in technology miniaturization.
Inherently, BGAs are a great way of integrating the plethora of sensing and response systems needed for applications such as
autonomous vehicles. The Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) that are critical pieces of autonomous vehicles require carefully
calibrated sensors to gather the constantly changing information around a car as it travels down the road. According to Intel,
"Autonomous vehicles will need the computing power necessary to fuse ~1gb/sec of information from various sensors to [output] safe
Of course, these systems must be rugged and reliable to meet safety standards. Research presented at the 2020 WCX SAE World Congress
studied the performance of high-density BGAs under different thermal and vibrational situations, simulating conditions that an autonomous
driving module would undergo when installed. Reliability is an important factor that directly impacts the design and therefore the assembly
process we select to manufacture these systems.